Albert Edward Ewart Palmer’s Story
Ewart’s parents were both born in Stoke and both had names which had been in the village for generations – Palmer and Thorne.
His father was Albert Edward Palmer and he married Albert’s mother, Clara Thorne, in 1887. Before his marriage, in 1871, he was living in Taunton as a lodger with Mr & Mrs Mitchell. His fellow lodger was a William Thorne, the same age as Albert (18) and born in Stoke. I wondered whether this was some relation of Clara, his wife to be, but I have not been able to find the connection. William’s parents were Samuel and Ann Thorne, while Clara’s parents were James and Mary Ann Thorne.
Albert was working as a stonemason while in Taunton but later on worked in the gloving industry in Stoke. The family lived in Castle Street when they were first married. Their eldest child, Alice May, died aged seven in 1898. Ewart was registered as Albert Ewart Palmer in 1893. On the 1911 census, his parents state that two of their three children survived so there must have been another child between 1893 and 1911. Ewart was 18 years old and worked as a cycle repairer at the cycle shop.
Ewart enlisted in the 7th Battalion Somerset Light Infantry, along with Ben Gaylard, Edward Gillman and Courtney Isaacs. He was one of the early volunteers.
The 7th Battalion SLI was part of the 61st Brigade and the 20th (Light) Division, which is described in “The Long, Long Trail”:
This Division was established in September 1914 as part of the Army Orders authorising Kitchener’s Second New Army, K2. Early days were somewhat chaotic, the new volunteers having very few trained officers and NCOs to command them, no organised billets or equipment. The units of the Division first assembled in the Aldershot area with brigades at Blackdown, Deepcut and Cowshott. Artillery was particularly hard to come by; 12 old guns arrived from India in February 1915! When in the same month the Division moved to Witley, Godalming and Guildford, the artillery had to go by train as there was insufficient harness for the horses. Another move was made, to Salisbury Plain, in April 1915.
The division was inspected by King George V at Knighton Down on 24 June 1915, by which time all equipment had arrived and the Division was judged ready for war.
On 24th July, the 7th Battalion of the Somerset Light Infantry landed at Boulogne. Early trench familiarisation and training took place in the Fleurbaix area. [http://www.1914-1918.net/]
EWART ARRIVES IN FRANCE – July 1915
Ewart Palmer arrived in France with the 7th Battalion on 24th July 1915, along with Edward Gillman, Courtney Isaacs and Bert Trotman – who later transferred out of the Somerset Light Infantry. Ben Gaylard may have also been with them.
The first time Ewart would have been in action with the 7th Somersets was during the Battle of Loos in September 1915, in the second attack on Bellewaarde. The Battalion were situated north of Loos and had orders to distract the enemy’s attention from the main operations between Loos and Givenchy. The 7th Somersets had been in billets in Le Rossignol from the end of July to 10th August, carrying out training and listening to the guns in the distance, wondering when it would be their turn. On 12th September, they moved into trenches east of La Cordonnerie Farm.
Early on the following morning, two enemy mines exploded, throwing men and equipment into the air. 20 men had to be dug out. Five men were killed and 12 wounded in the explosion.
On 19th September, the Battalion was relieved and returned to billets but on 24th September they were back in the front line. The Diary states, “Most of our artillery having gone south to help the real battle, we were practically without artillery support.” Luckily, the aim of the enemy artillery was poor and did not do too much damage. However, “the Hun machine guns were busy all along the line” and “the Rifle Brigade alone had 300 casualties.”
This is a photograph taken in August 1915 of the front line trenches at Bois Grenier, near Armentieres, just north of where Ewart was in September 1915.
Belts of wire protected the front-line trenches. Soldiers on all sides hated the wire and dreaded getting caught in it. [National Army Museum]
From 26th September to 31st December 1915, Ewart’s Battalion settled down to life in the trenches, without hostile attacks but engaged in the usual operations of sniping and patrolling No Man’s Land, with occasional rests behind the front line. Their sector was a quiet one, and casualties were small – an average of one per day when in the line.
1916 – THE YPRES SALIENT
On 1st January 1916, the 7th Battalion was at Fleurbaix, moving to Steenbecque on 12th January. They then received orders which would take them into the dreaded Ypres Salient. On 23rd January, they were billeted at Waermers Cappel, in the Arneke area, and on 3rd February had good billets in Wormhaut.
On 23rd February the 61st Brigade (Ewart’s) relieved the 60th Brigade in the front line. In the first four days in the front line in the Salient, three men were killed and 16 wounded. The trenches were water-logged, and there were no dug-outs. Men and officers had to sit on the fire-steps up to their knees in water. They were in the front line for four days and then four days in support. At the beginning of April the weather improved and the ground began to dry up a little.
On 11th April, the enemy attacked. The 7th Battalion were standing to on the west side of the Canal Bank. An SOS went up from the front line at 7.15 p.m. and the Battalion crossed the bridges to the eastern bank. D Company was ordered up to the front line to bring up boxes of ammunition and helped repel the Germans who were trying to break through a gap between the battalions. It is a shame that we don’t know which company Ewart was in.
By 10 p.m. on 11th April the situation had returned to normal and the 61st Brigade were relieved by the 60th.
The 7th Battalion was sent to Calais for ten days’ rest. They were back in the Salient on 19th May, relieving the 2nd Coldstream Guards outside the Ypres-Zonnebeke Road.
On 21st May, the Somersets were under attack. The Germans were driven back but two officers were wounded, one other rank killed and 22 other ranks wounded. The first mention of Ewart in the Western Gazette is when he is wounded on the Somme in September 1916 – there is no account of his having been wounded or sick up until that time so I assume that he came through all the fighting unscathed from July 1915 until September 1916. You can understand why men became superstitious and relied on lucky charms to keep them safe when they saw friends being wounded and killed and falling sick around them while they, themselves, went on for month after month somehow escaping harm in horrendous conditions.
At the end of May, the 7th Battalion were in billets in Rue Boscehepe, Poperinghe – all four companies were all billeted together in a large factory.
THE BATTLE OF MOUNT SORRELL – 2nd to 13th June 1916 – 7th Somersets in support of the Canadians
At the beginning of June, the Germans attacked the Canadians north of the Menin Road and captured Maple Copse, Mount Sorrell and Observatory Ridge. The Canadians then made a counter attack and regained what had been lost as far as the foot of Mount Sorrel and the Ridge. It was essential to recover the remainder of the lost ground because of the advantage it gave the enemy over the Allied trenches. Ewart’s Battalion was to be involved in this.
On 8th June, the 7th Battalion was back in the front line between Railway Wood and “Y” Wood (west of Bellewaarde Lake) just north of the Menin Road. On 13th June, the final counter-attack was due to take place. The 20th Division (Ewart’s) was ordered to assist the Canadian attack by discharging gas cylinders and making raids. Two of these raids was to be made by the 7th Somersets.
At 1.30 a.m. the gas was discharged. The wind was in the right direction to take it towards the enemy but heavy rain had fallen the night before so that it was only possible for one of the raids to take place. This was carried out by ‘C’ Company – 30 NCO’s and men commanded by Lieutenant J C N Peard. The ground was sodden and gas still hung in the air so that they had to wear gas helmets. The wire in front of the trenches was supposed to have been cut by trench mortars but they found it to be still intact and had to cut it themselves, under fire. Ten men were wounded and three were killed. Wounded and unwounded returned to the trenches, but the killed had to be left out in No Man’s Land. ‘A’ Company were in the support trenches and had nine men wounded and four men killed. The Battalion were relieved the night of 13th June and moved back to Ypres.
EWART MOVES SOUTH TO THE SOMME – July 1916
The 20th Division left the Ypres Salient around the middle of July and journeyed south. The 7th Somersets marched into Mailly Maillet on 27th July and the following day were moved into the trenches front of Auchonvillers. These trenches and the surrounding country were full of half-buried corpses. Many of these were the men from 1st Battalion who had fought in the attack on Serre on 1st July – “these were reverently laid to rest by their newly arrived comrades.” [The Somerset Light Infantry 1914-19 – Everard Wyrall] Archie Thorne and Hugh Grinter from Stoke had been in 1st Somersets and had died on 1st July 1916.
On 16th August, 20th Division marched further south to go into the line east of Albert and on 25th August the 7th Somersets went into the front line opposite Guillemont, a ruined, shell-blasted village which had been captured and lost again and again, 1,500 yards south east of Delville Wood.
Battle of Guillemont – September 1916
[Taken from the War Diary of the 7 Bn SLI]
“3 September Came back to Craters Carnoy [south of Montauban] at 12 midnight. 2/3 September left Craters at 8.30 a.m. and marched to trenches W of Trones Wood and there assembled in support of attack by 59th Brigade. Advance in support at 12 noon. Companies in lines of two platoons in file. Men advanced steadily through German barrage. 59th Brigade having taken 2nd objective, two companies SLI pushed on and advancing close under our artillery barrage took 3rd Objective – the enemy garrison. 46 men and 1 officer being retired to two dugouts, surrendered on our arrival. Other units of 59th Brigade arrived and trenches consolidated. At 8 pm, two companies ordered to dig a support line E of Guillemont at 8 p.m. B Company sent to reinforce 47 Brigade on N side of Guillemont, Combles Rd. Casualties: 1 officer killed, 9 wounded, including C/O. 140 other ranks killed and wounded.
Everard Wyrall, in his history of the Somerset Light Infantry, expands on this Diary entry from a private narrative written by the C.O., Colonel Troyte-Bullock, where he describes the 7th Somersets advancing at 12 noon – “After crossing the Montauban-Guillemont road a hostile 5.9 barrage fell right across the front of the Battalion, but the platoons, in single file, never wavered for an instant, but went steadily through it as if they were on Salisbury Plain. About 40 casualties were sustained in going through this barrage.”
4 September Guillemont. A quiet day – consolidation proceeding at 8 pm. 2 companies sent to dig and hold a trench from SW corner of Leuze Wood to the Guillemont to Combles road – a front of 300 yards. A perfect deluge of rain came while this work was proceeding. This detachment was exposed to our heavy shellfire the whole night but maintained their position and dug in.
5 September 7th and 8th Inniskilling Fus. relieved the Battalion at 8 am. Enemy started sniping during relief on 3rd and again 2nd, J H Hill under orders reconnoitred Leuze Wood and found it unoccupied. Reached Craters Carnoy at 10 am. Very tired but in good spirits.
6 September Craters Carnoy. Battalion resting and refitting.
7 September Marched to Sandpits and Meaulte. Transport remained in Happy Valley.
The Battle of Guillemont had cost the 7th Somersets 11 killed and 155 wounded.
8 September Meaulte. Marched to Mericourt L’Abbé with transport.
9 September Mericourt. Battalion resting and refitting.
10 September Mericourt. Church parade. Addressed by Divisional Commander, General Smith, on good work at Battle of Guillemont, and afterwards march past. Men bathed in river. New clothes and uniform issued.
11 September Mericourt. Battalion inspected by C.O.
12 September Sandpits, Meaulte. Moved from Mericourt to Sandpits, Meaulte.
13 September Sandpits. Companies under Company Commanders.
14 September Sandpits. Moved from Sandpits to Citidal.
BATTLE OF FLERS-COURCELETTE – 15th to 22nd September – first use of tanks
15 September Waterlot Farm. Moved in the morning from Citidal to Talus Boise [2000 metres SW of Bernafay Wood and south of Montauban] where the Battalion formed up and awaited orders. At Mid-day orders received and Battalion moved up to Waterlot Farm.
16 September – [Day of Edward Gillman’s Death and George Ralph’s disappearance, Harry Turner died the following day, 17th September] Trench in front of Lesboeufs. Midnight 15 – 16th, Battalion moved up through Ginchy to a position 600 yards in front of German lines, protecting Les Boeufs, and dug in at 9.35. ZERO + 10 the Battalion attacked and captured the German front line on a front of 150 yards to left of Ginchy Lesboeufs Rd and held this while a new line was dug just west of it. They captured in this operation about 50 prisoners and 2 Lewis guns. Having used up all their bombs and also all those captured from the Germans, they were forced to fall back into the new trench and hold this until relieved on the night of 16-17 by Shropshire LI. After relief, Battalion marched back to trenches E of Bernafay Wood.
Everard Wyrall describes the fighting on 16th September:
“In this attack the objective of the 7th Somersets was the German front-line trench, which the Battalion was to capture and hold until a new line was dug just west of it, to the north of the Ginchy-Les Boeufs road.
All the honours of war fell that day to the 7th Battalion. The attack, splendidly carried out, began at 9.35 a.m…the German front line on a front of 150 yards was captured and held while the new line was dug just west of it, and about fifty prisoners were captured. Having used up all their bombs, as well as a large quantity captured from the enemy, the bombers were unable to cover the Battalion, which then fell back to the new trench which had been dug and held it until relieved on the night of 16th/17th September by the Shropshire Light Infantry. That is the story contained in the official Diary. Bald indeed; bare of all those little details and thrilling episodes which make military history live. Yet none the less they did happen. Two incidents occurred which alone should live for all time in the history of the 7th Somersets. With bayonet and bomb the Battalion had cleared the Germans out of their front-line trench, two bombers of B Company – L/Cpl. Hill and Pte Barrow – single-handed, bombing the enemy out of 150 yards of his trench, using German bombs. Brilliant as was this bombing affair, it was outshone by the extraordinary gallantry of Private Hill (also of B Company, and a Lewis gunner). With another man of his section, Hill pushed forward with the gun to a new position some 60 yards in front of the Battalion’s most advanced posts. For no less than 36 hours Hill held on to his post, at one time, with his comrade taking a prominent part in breaking up a hostile counter-attack, by bringing heavy enfilade fire on the attackers. He fought on and on until at last, his comrade being killed and his ammunition exhausted, he picked up his gun and empty magazines and retired to where he imagined the Battalion to be, only to find that it had been relieved 12 hours previously. Eventually he rejoined the Battalion at Talus Boise.
Ten officers and about 162 other ranks were the casualties suffered by the Battalion on 16th September.” [History of the Somerset Light Infantry 1914-19 by Everard Wyrall]
Ewart was wounded in September 1916, along with Henry Follett, Courtney Isaac, Harry Turner, and Harold Rice. George Ralph was missing in action on 16th September (later presumed dead) and Edward Gillman was killed on that day. Harry Turner died of his wounds on 17th September, Courtney Isaacs on 1st October and Harold Rice on 3rd December. It was a bad time for Stoke families.
Ewart recovered from the wounds he received in the fighting of September 1916 but was killed the following spring.
We don’t know when he rejoined his regiment, but on 1st January 1917, the 7th Battalion was billeted in Meaulte, just south of Albert. From 1st to 5th February, they were in billets at Coisy, north of Amiens. The premature explosion of a grenade caused six casualties on 1st February, including the commanding officer and the second in command. On 6th February, they moved to Carnoy, south east of Mametz by motor bus, leaving Coisy at 10 a.m. On 7th February they marched from Carnoy to Guillemont, south of Ginchy.
They were in the front line from 8th to 10th February, and during this time 27 were wounded and 4 were killed. They returned to Carnoy (Camp 6) on 11th February. On the night of the 13th, they moved from Carnoy to Guillemont.
It was during this pattern of alternating between billets and then front line duty that Ewart was killed, on 2nd March. There was a report in the Western Gazette on 9th March 1917:
Killed at the Front – the sad news has been received that Private Ewart Palmer of the Somerset Light Infantry was killed on March 2nd. A comrade (Private A Nelms) saw the fact posted in the regimental orders and at once sent word to his father who up to then had had no official information. Much sympathy is expressed with Mr Bert Palmer in the loss of his son, who was one of the first Stoke volunteers and held the respect of all who knew him.
Ewart is remembered on Thiepval Memorial which is the memorial for those men who have no known grave.
On 1 July 1916, supported by a French attack to the south, thirteen divisions of Commonwealth forces launched an offensive on a line from north of Gommecourt to Maricourt. Despite a preliminary bombardment lasting seven days, the German defences were barely touched and the attack met unexpectedly fierce resistance. Losses were catastrophic and with only minimal advances on the southern flank, the initial attack was a failure. In the following weeks, huge resources of manpower and equipment were deployed in an attempt to exploit the modest successes of the first day. However, the German Army resisted tenaciously and repeated attacks and counter attacks meant a major battle for every village, copse and farmhouse gained. At the end of September, Thiepval was finally captured. The village had been an original objective of 1 July. Attacks north and east continued throughout October and into November in increasingly difficult weather conditions. The Battle of the Somme finally ended on 18 November with the onset of winter.
In the spring of 1917, the German forces fell back to their newly prepared defences, the Hindenburg Line, and there were no further significant engagements in the Somme sector until the Germans mounted their major offensive in March 1918.
The Thiepval Memorial, the Memorial to the Missing of the Somme, bears the names of more than 72,000 officers and men of the United Kingdom and South African forces who died in the Somme sector before 20 March 1918 and have no known grave. Over 90% of those commemorated died between July and November 1916. The memorial also serves as an Anglo-French Battle Memorial in recognition of the joint nature of the 1916 offensive and a small cemetery containing equal numbers of Commonwealth and French graves lies at the foot of the memorial.
[Commonwealth War Graves Commission]
The following list contains information about Albert Edward Ewart Palmer. Click on the document name to open a pdf of the document.